General Mitigation Resources
|Moroccan port. Photo by Mike Markovina/Marine Photobank.|
The Consortium for Wildlife Bycatch Reduction maintains a database of studies that have investigated mitigation techniques, which can be accessed by fishing technique, species, and mitigation method.
The Agreement for the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels has summaries of their latest advice for species covered under the agreement.
Birdlife International has produced a series of 14 factsheets which treat mitigation techniques for longline and trawl fisheries in a variety of configurations, which are now available in French, Spanish, Portuguese, Japanese, Korean and Mandarin.
Seabird Bycatch Solutions for Fishery Sustainability is a manual that contains a great deal of information on seabird biology, risks, mitigation methods (including videos of the methods), and regulations and protections for seabirds.
BirdLife International has produced a video Saving Albatrosses - How to Reduce Seabird Bycatch - Tuna Longline Fisheries showing the issues for albatross bycatch and bycatch reduction techniques. The video is also available in Taiwanese.
O'Keefe et al. evaluate three categories of techniques that are unrelated to gear modifications: time/area closures, bycatch quotas/caps, and fleet communications. They explore the conditions under which each of these techniques is most effective, and conclude that usually it is a combination of measures that are the most effective. Table 1 provides a list of the studies reviewed and ranks them against performance criteria.
- O'Keefe, C. E., Cadrin, S. X., & Stokesbury, K. D. (2014). Evaluating effectiveness of time/area closures, quotas/caps, and fleet communications to reduce fisheries bycatch. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil. 71(5), 1286-1297. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fst063.
The following three papers review bycatch reduction techniques, as well as studies investigating their effectiveness. From the abstract of Bull (2007): ''As yet, there is no single magic solution to reduce or eliminate seabird bycatch across all fisheries: a combination of measures is required, and even within a fishery there is likely to be refinement of techniques by individual vessels in order to maximize their effectiveness at reducing seabird bycatch."
- Bull, L. S. (2007). Reducing seabird bycatch in longline, trawl and gillnet fisheries. Fish and Fisheries, 8(1), 31–56.
- Bull, L. S. (2009). New mitigation measures reducing seabird by-catch in trawl fisheries. Fish and Fisheries, 10(4), 408–427. doi:10.1111/j.1467-2979.2009.00327.x
- Løkkeborg, S. (2011). Best practices to mitigate seabird bycatch in longline, trawl and gillnet fisheries—efficiency and practical applicability. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 435, 285–303. doi:10.3354/meps09227
The following paper thoroughly reviews bycatch issues associated with traps and nets, including information on bycatch reduction techniques.
- Uhlmann, S. S., & Broadhurst, M. K. (2015). Mitigating unaccounted fishing mortality from gillnets and traps. Fish and Fisheries 16(2), 183-229. doi:10.1111/faf.12049
Waugh et al. review how CCAMLR selected its mitigation and safeguard measures and compare CCAMLR with three other RFMOs with respect to their mitigation measures.
- Waugh, S. M., Baker, G. B., Gales, R., & Croxall, J. P. (2008). CCAMLR process of risk assessment to minimise the effects of longline fishing mortality on seabirds. Marine Policy, 32(3), 442–454. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2007.08.011