Bibliography & Sources

Literature Sources

Skua Stercorarius spp. Photo by Dmytro Pylpenko/Shutterstock. 

More than 2,000 sources were used in the creation of this database, drawing on everything from books and journals as far back as 1869 to technical reports, websites and up to the minute online resources. Many of these papers are now available for free on the web. Where possible, links are provided. Notornis, Auk, Condor, PLoS One, Marine Ornithology (and its other incarnations and sister publications: Cormorant, Atlantic Seabirds) are freely available (some through SORA), as are older (5 or more years) papers from Marine Ecology Progress Series. ACAP (Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels) often has up-to-date abstracts and papers for the species covered under the agreement, and the Gull Research Organization also has papers for (primarily European) gull species available on its pages. The Birds of North America has very reasonable prices for a 30 day subscription and J-Stor now offers a monthly (USD $19.50) or yearly subscription (USD $199) to over 1700 journals, although there are article limitations. The Handbook of Birds of the World (del Hoyo et al., below) has online subscriptions available at €49.95 for the first year. Finally, authors sometimes provide copies of their work on their personal pages, so it is always worth doing a search for the paper’s title. To resolve DOIs (provided for some, but not all papers) use the resolver at: 

The following resources (5 books and 4 online resources) together provide coverage of the basic biology of all the species covered here and are a great place to start:

  • BirdLife International. 2014. Data Zone.
  • del Hoyo, J., A. Elliot & D. Christie, (Editors). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 1, 3. Lynx Ediciones. Barcelona, Spain.
  • Howell, S. N. G. 2012. Petrels, Albatrosses and Storm-Petrels of North America. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Howell, S. N. G., & Dunn, J. 2007. Gulls of the Americas. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
  • Lebbin, Daniel J., Parr, M. and Fenwick, G. 2010. The American Bird Conservancy Guide to Bird Conservation. Lynx Edicions. Barcelona, Spain.
  • Miskelly, C.M. (ed.). 2014. New Zealand Birds Online.
  • Onley, D., & Scofield, P. 2007. Albatrosses, Petrels and Shearwaters of the World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Poole, A. (Editor). 2005. The Birds of North America Online: Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY.
  • Schulenberg, T. (ed.) 2014. Neotropical Birds Online.

Map Sources

Users have the choice of several base maps, with which you may be familiar from other mapping applications. Optional maps which you can display as additional layers include:

Species range maps used for the queries, and displayed on the Comprehensive Species Reports were created specifically for this project in 2013 and 2014, and reflect the best state of knowledge at that time. The range maps reflect marine range only, and do not differentiate between breeding and non-breeding season. The maps are typically informed by more than one source; you can download a list of all the references for each range map here.