Seabird Species Caught in Demersal Longlines

These species have all been recorded as caught in demersal longlines (International Standard Classification of Fishing Gears code 09.31).

There are 93 species of seabirds recorded caught in demersal longlines. Although a few species are adept divers (notably, the penguins, some shearwaters, and some shags), a great many of these species are not deep divers. Nine are not diving species (see below), and 13 are surface divers, very rarely going further than 1 m below the surface. This suggests that most the birds on this list are not being caught when the demersal longline is set at depth, but rather when the hooks are near the surface, either being deployed or being hauled. There are very effective methods to reduce seabird bycatch when a longline is being set or hauled, primarily the use of bird-scaring lines (tori or streamer lines) or weighting systems.

The majority (48 of 93) of species recorded caught on demersal longlines are tubenoses (Procellariiformes; the albatrosses, petrels, fulmars, shearwaters, and storm petrels). Almost all species of albatrosses (18 of 21 species) have been recorded caught on demersal longlines. Many species (26) of gulls, skuas, and jaegers (Laridae and Stercoraridae in the Charadriiformes) are also caught. Because few of these are diving species but are rather scavengers, it is further evidence that the birds are being caught when trying to take bait when the line is beign set or trying to take items on hooks when the line is being hauled. 

If you are interested in more details about bycatch in any of these species, go to the map tool, choose "Explore by Species," select the species (probably easiest in the "Common name" drop-down box), submit the query, and get a comprehensive report for your species of interest. The report will list all of the references regarding bycatch in the "Gear Interaction References" section.


Penguins (Sphenisciformes)

King Penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus
Gentoo Penguin Pygoscelis papua
Chinstrap Penguin Pygoscelis antarcticus
Erect-crested Penguin Eudyptes sclateri
Southern Rockhopper Penguin Eudyptes chrysocome
Macaroni Penguin Eudyptes chrysolophus
Little Penguin Eudyptula minor
Magellanic Penguin Spheniscus magellanicus

Albatrosses (Procellariiformes)

Laysan Albatross Phoebastria immutabilis (not a diving species)
Black-footed Albatross Phoebastria nigripes (not a diving species)
Waved Albatross Phoebastria irrorata
Short-tailed Albatross Phoebastria albatrus (not a diving species)
Wandering Albatross Diomedea exulans
Antipodean Albatross Diomedea antipodensis
Tristan Albatross Diomedea dabbenena
Southern Royal Albatross Diomedea epomophora
Sooty Albatross Phoebetria fusca (not a diving species)
Black-browed Albatross Thalassarche melanophris
Campbell Albatross Thalassarche impavida
Shy Albatross Thalassarche cauta
Chatham Albatross Thalassarche eremita
Salvin's Albatross Thalassarche salvini
Gray-headed Albatross Thalassarche chrysostoma
Atlantic Yellow-nosed Albatross Thalassarche chlororhynchos
Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross Thalassarche carteri
Buller's Albatross Thalassarche bulleri

Fulmars and Petrels (Procellariiformes)

Southern Giant Petrel Macronectes giganteus
Northern Giant Petrel Macronectes halli
Northern Fulmar Fulmarus glacialis
Southern Fulmar Fulmarus glacialoides
Cape Petrel Daption capense
Broad-billed Prion Pachyptila vittata
Fairy Prion Pachyptila turtur
Great-winged Petrel Pterodroma macroptera
Galapagos Petrel Pterodroma phaeopygia
Mottled Petrel Pterodroma inexpectata
Gray Petrel Procellaria cinerea
White-chinned Petrel Procellaria aequinoctialis
Spectacled Petrel Procellaria conspicillata
Black Petrel Procellaria parkinsoni
Westland Petrel Procellaria westlandica

Shearwaters (Procellariiformes)

Scopoli's Shearwater Calonectris diomedea
Buller's Shearwater Ardenna bulleri
Sooty Shearwater Ardenna grisea
Short-tailed Shearwater Ardenna tenuirostris
Pink-footed Shearwater Ardenna creatopus
Flesh-footed Shearwater Ardenna carneipes
Great Shearwater Ardenna gravis
Yelkouan Shearwater Puffinus yelkouan
Balearic Shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus
Fluttering Shearwater Puffinus gavia

Storm Petrels and Diving Petrels (Procellariiformes)

Wilson's Storm Petrel Oceanites oceanicus
White-faced Storm Petrel Pelagodroma marina (not a diving species)
Wedge-rumped Storm Petrel Oceanodroma tethys
Hornby's Storm Petrel Oceanodroma hornbyi
Common Diving Petrel Pelecanoides urinatrix

Pelicans (Pelecaniformes)

Brown Pelecan Pelecanus occidentalis

Boobies and Shags (Suliformes)

Northern Gannet Morus bassanus
Cape Gannet Morus capensis
Australasian Gannet Morus serrator
Blue-footed Booby Sula nebouxii
Nazca Booby Sula granti
Red-footed Booby Sula sula
Brown Booby Sula leuogaster
Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus
European Shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis
Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo

Gulls and Skuas (Charadriiformes)

Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla
Red-legged Kittiwake Rissa brevirostris
Sabine's Gull Xema sabini
Gray-headed Gull Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus
Laughing Gull Leucophaeus atricilla
Franklin's Gull Leucophaeus pipixcan
Audouin's Gull Ichthyaetus audouinii (not a diving species)
California Gull Larus californicus
Great Black-backed Gull Larus marinus
Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus
Glaucous-winged Gull Larus glaucescens
Western Gull Larus occidentalis
Glaucous Gull Larus hyperboreus
European Herring Gull Larus argentatus
American Herring Gull Larus smithsonianus
Vega Gull Larus vegae
Caspian Gull Larus cachinnans
Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis
Slaty-backed Gull Larus schistisagus
Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus
Elegant Tern Thalasseus elegans
Common Tern Sterna hirundo
Brown Skua Stercorarius antarcticus (not a diving species)
Great Skua Stercorarius skua

Alcids (Charadriiformes)

Thick-billed Murre Uria lomvia
Common Murre Uria aalge