Seabird Species Caught in Pelagic Longlines

These species have all been recorded as caught in pelagic longlines, also called "surface longlines" (International Standard Classification of Fishing Gears codes 09.31, 09.32, and 09.39).

There are 78 species of seabirds recorded caught in pelagic longlines. Except for the penguins and a few of the shearwaters, none of these species are deep divers. Ten species are not divers (see below) and one of these (Great Frigatebird) never even lands on the water. Of the remaining species, 15 are surface divers, very rarely going further than 1 m below the surface. This suggests that the birds on this list are being caught when the pelagic longline is very near the surface, either when being set or being hauled. There are very effective methods to reduce seabird bycatch when a longline is being set or hauled, primarily the use of bird-scaring lines (tori or streamer lines) or weighting systems.

Almost two-thirds (49 of 78) of species recorded caught on pelagic longlines are tubenoses (Procellariiformes; the albatrosses, petrels, fulmars, shearwaters, and storm petrels). Almost all species of albatrosses (20 of 21 species) have been recorded caught on pelagic longlines. Twelve species are gulls, skuas, or jaegers (Laridae and Stercoraridae in the Charadriiformes). None of these are diving species, but are rather scavengers. This is further evidence that the birds are being caught when trying to take bait when the line is beign set or trying to take items on hooks when the line is being hauled. 

If you are interested in more details about bycatch in any of these species, go to the map tool, choose "Explore by Species," select the species (probably easiest in the "Common name" drop-down box), submit the query, and get a comprehensive report for your species of interest. The report will list all of the references regarding bycatch in the "Gear Interaction References" section.

Penguins (Sphenisciformes)

King Penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus
Southern Rockhopper Penguin Eudyptes chrysocome
Magellanic Penguin Spheniscus magellanicus
Humboldt Penguin Spheniscus humboldti

Albatrosses (Procellariiformes)

Laysan Albatross Phoebastria immutabilis (not a diver)
Black-footed Albatross Phoebastria nigripes (not a diver)
Waved Albatross Phoebastria irrorata
Wandering Albatross Diomedea exulans
Antipodean Albatross Diomedea antipodensis (not a diver)
Amsterdam Albatross Diomedea amsterdamensis
Tristan Albatross Diomedea dabbenena
Southern Royal Albatross Diomedea epomophora
Northern Royal Albatross Diomedea sanfordi
Sooty Albatross Phoebetria fusca (not a diver)
Light-mantled Albatross Phoebetria palpebrata
Black-browed Albatross Thalassarche melanophris
Campbell Albatross Thalassarche impavida
Shy Albatross Thalassarche cauta
Chatham Albatross Thalassarche eremita
Salvin's Albatross Thalassarche salvini
Gray-headed Albatross Thalassarche chrysostoma
Atlantic Yellow-nosed Albatross Thalassarche chlororhynchos
Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross Thalassarche carteri
Buller's Albatross Thalassarche bulleri

Fulmars and Petrels (Procellariiformes)

Southern Giant Petrel Macronectes giganteus
Northern Giant Petrel Macronectes halli
Northern Fulmar Fulmarus glacialis
Southern Fulmar Fulmarus glacialoides
Cape Petrel Daption capense
Fairy Prion Pachyptila turtur
Kerguelen Petrel Aphrodroma brevirostris
Great-winged Petrel Pterodroma macroptera
White-headed Petrel Pterodroma lessonii (not a diver)
Gray-faced Petrel Pterodroma gouldi
Gray Petrel Procellaria cinerea
White-chinned Petrel Procellaria aequinoctialis
Spectacled Petrel Procellaria conspicillata
Black Petrel Procellaria parkinsoni
Westland Petrel Procellaria westlandica

Shearwaters (Procellariiformes)

Scopoli's Shearwater Calonectris diomedea
Cory's Shearwater Calonectris borealis
Wedge-tailed Shearwater Ardenna pacifica
Sooty Shearwater Ardenna grisea
Short-tailed Shearwater Ardenna tenuirostris
Flesh-footed Shearwater Ardenna carneipes
Great Shearwater Ardenna gravis
Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus
Yelkouan Shearwater Puffinus yelkouan
Balearic Shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus
Tropical Shearwater Puffinus bailloni

Storm Petrels (Procellariiformes)

Wilson's Storm Petrel Oceanites oceanicus
Gray-backed Storm Petrel Garrodia nereis

Tropicbirds (Phaethontiformes)

White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon lepturus

Pelicans (Pelecaniformes)

Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis

Frigatebirds (Suliformes)

Great Frigatebird Fregata minor (not a diver)

Boobies and Shags (Suliformes)

Northern Gannet Morus bassanus
Cape Gannet Morus capensis
Australasian Gannet Morus serrator
Blue-footed Booby Sula nebouxii
Masked Booby Sula dactylatra
Red-footed Booby Sula sula
Brown Booby Sula leucogaster
European Shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis
Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo

Gulls and Skuas (Charadriiformes)

Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla
Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus (not a diver)
Laughing Gull Leucophaeus atricilla
Audouin's Gull Ichthyaetus audouinii (not a diver)
Great Black-backed Gull Larus marinus
American Herring Gull Larus smithsonianus
Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis
South Polar Skua Stercorarius maccormicki
Brown Skua Stercorarius antarcticus (not a diver)
Great Skua Stercorarius skua
Pomarine Skua Stercorarius pomarinus
Parasitic Jaeger Stercorarius parasiticus (not a diver)

Alcids (Charadriiformes)

Common Murre Uria aalge
Atlantic Puffin Fratercula arctica